Left to itself, cyberspace will become the perfect tool of control.
--Lawrence Lessig

  John McCarthy

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A principal investigator in Lick's intergalactic network who invented LISP, developed the model of computer time-sharing, coined the term "artificial intelligence", and founded the AI labs at MIT and Stanford.

As a graduate student at Princeton University in the early 1950s, McCarthy befriended fellow student Marvin Minsky. McCarthy, Minsky, Shannon, and Nathan Rochester of IBM organized the first ever AI conference at Dartmouth College the summer of 1956. McCarthy’s 1955 Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project On Artificial Intelligence defines the "artificial intelligence problem" as "making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving."

In 1959 McCarthy and Minsky founded the MIT Artificial Intelligence Group, which later became the AI Lab. McCarthy left MIT in 1962 to found the AI Lab at Stanford University.

The timeshared computer, first developed by McCarthy at MIT around 1960, consisted of one host computer connected to any number of dumb terminals or "work stations."

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